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As the saying goes, it's better to lose a kilogram than to increase one horsepower. The importance of lightweight for modern vehicles has long been self-evident. Lighter body means lower fuel consumption, better handling and small inertia, so the braking distance is shorter and the acceleration is sharper. So now the major automobile manufacturers began to rack their brains to develop how to make their cars lighter. At this time, various high-tech materials came into being. Carbon fiber is the most popular material at present.
Speaking of carbon fiber materials, we are no longer unfamiliar. From the monopoly of super sports cars in the early years to the wide application in performance vehicles and sports bodies, we are gradually accustomed to the application of this new material. However, in our impression, carbon fiber is still an expensive material, so what is carbon fiber? What are its advantages and disadvantages?
First of all, what are the advantages of carbon fiber?
Carbon fiber is a kind of fiber with high strength and high modulus with carbon content of more than 95%. It is a microcrystalline graphite material obtained by stacking organic fibers such as flake graphite microcrystalline along the axial direction of the fiber and carbonizing and graphitization. Carbon fiber is a material with good mechanical properties. Although the density is less than 1 / 4 of that of steel, the tensile strength of carbon fiber resin composites is generally more than 3500MPa, while the tensile strength of general vehicle steel is only a few hundred MPa, that is to say, for materials with the same cross-sectional area, the force that carbon fiber can bear is several times more than that of steel.
Of course, carbon fiber material not only has the advantage of high strength, but also lightweight is another advantage. At present, steel materials account for about 3 / 4 of the weight of the car body. If all the steel parts of the car are replaced by carbon fiber composites, the weight of the car body can be reduced by 300kg, the fuel efficiency can be improved by 36%, and the carbon dioxide emission can be reduced by 17%. This is a great progress in the lightweight of the car. You know, even if only one kilogram is reduced on the car, it often takes a lot of effort. In addition, the carbon fiber composites also have high temperature resistance and strong weather resistance, Strong designability.
In addition to carbon fiber body, where can carbon fiber materials be used?
It can be said that carbon ceramic brake is one of them. Carbon fiber brake discs are widely used in racing cars, such as F1 racing cars. It can reduce the speed of the car from 300 km / h to 50 km / h within 50 m. at this time, the temperature of the brake disc will rise to more than 900 ℃, and the brake disc will turn red because it absorbs a lot of heat energy. While the carbon fiber brake disc can withstand the high temperature of 2500 ℃, and has very excellent braking stability.
But things have two sides, so what are the disadvantages of carbon fiber materials?
One major disadvantage of carbon fiber material is its poor plasticity. We know that the current car body can be repaired after collision. This is mainly because metal materials such as steel have ductility and can undergo large deformation without damage. The carbon fiber composite body is not like this. If the car shell uses carbon fiber composite, it cannot be repaired after collision and can only be replaced as a whole. Therefore, the recyclability and cost will be lower than that of steel and other materials.
In addition, the durability of the matrix resin of carbon fiber composites is not as good as that of metal materials. After a long time, there will be brittle, discoloration and other phenomena. In addition, the high manufacturing cost of carbon fiber can not be ignored. Of course, with the further reduction of the cost of carbon fiber materials and the improvement of technology, carbon fiber materials will undoubtedly have more applications.